1. Why does Baxter believe that we should have clear goals in mind in order to answer moral questions about the environment and about pollution in particular?
2. What are the four criteria or goals that he suggests? In what ways are these people-oriented criteria?
3. Does he believe that people-oriented criteria will necessarily be bad for the penguins or other elements of our environment? Why or why not?
4. What are his objections to valuing penguins, for example, for their own sake, beyond their usefulness to human beings?
5. What problem does he raise for the belief that we ought to “respect the balance of nature”?
6. Why does he believe that there is no right level of pollution?
7. What is the difference, according to Baxter, between resources and costs? How are they related? Why does the cost of building a dam or controlling pollution involve trade-offs?

  • CreatedDecember 30, 2014
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