# Question

A PCM waveform has the two states + 1 and 0. Suppose the transition matrix is

The initial value of the waveform is determined by the flip of a coin, with the outcome of a head corresponding to + 1 and a tail to 0.

(a) What is the probability that the waveform will be at + 1 after one step if the coin is a fair coin?

(b) Find the same probability if the coin is biased such that a head occurs with probability 1/3.

(c) Repeat the problem for two steps.

The initial value of the waveform is determined by the flip of a coin, with the outcome of a head corresponding to + 1 and a tail to 0.

(a) What is the probability that the waveform will be at + 1 after one step if the coin is a fair coin?

(b) Find the same probability if the coin is biased such that a head occurs with probability 1/3.

(c) Repeat the problem for two steps.

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