A Ph.D. student in public administration has studied the relationship between the quality of municipal bureaucracy and the economic development of cities. She hypothesizes that the higher the quality of the city bureaucracy (as measured by such factors as innovativeness, efficiency, and responsiveness), the greater the economic development. By this hypothesis, she assumes that bureaucratic quality leads to economic development. To test this hypothesis, she sent out questionnaires to a random sample of 120 cities with a population between 50,000 and 100,000. Based on these data, she assembles the accompanying cross-tabulation.
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