A professor of public administration has kept records on the class participation of his students over the past several years. He has a strong feeling (hypothesis) that class participation is related to grade in the course. For this analysis he classifies course grades into two categories, fail and pass. He operationalizes class participation as “low” if the student participated in class discussion in fewer than 25% of class periods, and “high” if the student participated in 25% or more of the periods. Based on these definitions, he has assembled the cross-tabulation below. Does a relationship exist between class participation and course grades?
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