A student challenges the second law of thermodynamics by saying that entropy does not have to increase in all situations, such as when water freezes to ice. Is this challenge valid? Why or why not?
Answer to relevant QuestionsA student tries to cool his dormitory room by opening the refrigerator door. Will that work? Explain. In Fig. 12.19, the plunger of a syringe is pushed in quickly, and the small pieces of paper in the syringe catch fire. Explain this phenomenon using the first law of thermodynamics. (Similarly, in a diesel engine, there are ...2.0 mol of an ideal gas expands isothermally from a volume of 20 L to 40 L at 20 oC. (a) The work done by the gas is (1) positive, (2) negative, (3) zero. Explain. (b) What is the magnitude of the work? 2.0 kg of ice melts completely into liquid water at 0 oC. (a) The change in entropy of the ice (water) in this process is (1) positive, (2) zero, (3) negative. Explain. (b) What is the change in entropy of the ice (water)? ...A system goes from state 1 to state 3 as shown on the T–S diagram in Fig. 12.25. (a) The heat transfer for the process going from state 2 to state 3 is (1) positive, (2) zero, (3) negative. Explain. (b) Calculate the ...
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