A young child wonders what causes women to have babies. For each woman who lives on her block, she observes whether her hair is gray and whether she has young children, with the results shown in the table that follows.
a. Construct the 2 × 2 contingency table that cross-tabulates gray hair (yes, no) with has young children (yes, no) for these nine women.
b. Treating has young children as the response variable, obtain the conditional distributions for those women who have gray hair and for those who do not. Does there seem to be an association?
c. Noticing this association, the child concludes that not having gray hair is what causes women to have children. Use this example to explain why association does not necessarily imply causation.

  • CreatedSeptember 11, 2015
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