According to The Wellness Encyclopedia (University of California, 1991, p. 17): “Alcohol consumed to excess increases the risk of cancer of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and larynx. These risks increase dramatically when alcohol is used in conjunction with tobacco.” It is obviously not possible to conduct a designed experiment on humans to test this claim, so the causal conclusion must be based on observational studies. Explain three potential additional pieces of information that the authors may have used to lead them to make a causal conclusion. The following information applies to Exercises 14 to 16. Suppose a positive relationship had been found between each of the sets of variables given in Exercises 14 to 16. In Section 11.3, seven potential reasons for such relationships are given. Explain which of the seven reasons is most likely to account for the relationship in each case. If you think more than one reason might apply, mention them all but elaborate on only the one you think is most likely
Answer to relevant Questionsa. Number of deaths from automobiles and beer sales for each year from 1950 to 1990. b. Number of ski accidents and average wait time for the ski lift for each day during one winter at a ski resort. Each of the following headlines reported on an observational study. In each case, explain whether or not you think the headline is warranted. If not, write a more suitable headline. a. “Morning people are happier than ...News Story 16: “More on TV Violence.” (Computer software required.) Find two variables that are both changing over time. A good source is government data available at the website http://fedstats.gov.Record the values of the two variables for at least eight time ...In Example 12.4 and Table 12.5, we presented data from Australia showing that the likelihood of couples separating depended on whether the wife’s parents had been divorced. For this exercise, we consider the likelihood of ...
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