At the beginning of 2013, Wagner Implements undertook a variety of changes in accounting methods, corrected several errors, and instituted new accounting policies.
On a sheet of paper numbered from 1 to 10, indicate for each item below the type of change and the reporting approach Wagner would use.
Type of Change (choose one) ........ Reporting Approach (choose one)
P. Change in accounting principle ....... R. Retrospective approach
E. Change in accounting estimate ........ P. Prospective approach
EP. Change in estimate resulting from a change in principle
X. Correction of an error
N. Neither an accounting change nor an accounting error.
1. By acquiring additional stock, Wagner increased its investment in Wise, Inc., from a 12% interest to 25% and changed its method of accounting for the investment to the equity method.
2. Wagner instituted a postretirement benefit plan for its employees in 2013. Wagner did not previously have such a plan.
3. Wagner changed its method of depreciating computer equipment from the SYD method to the straight-line method.
4. Wagner determined that a liability insurance premium it both paid and expensed in 2012 covered the 2012–2014 periods.
5. Wagner custom-manufactures farming equipment on a contract basis. Wagner switched its accounting for these long-term contracts from the completed-contract method to the percentage-of-completion method.
6. Due to an unexpected relocation, Wagner determined that its office building, previously depreciated using a 45-year life, should be depreciated using an 18-year life.
7. Wagner offers a three-year warranty on the farming equipment it sells. Manufacturing efficiencies caused Wagner to reduce its expectation of warranty costs from 2% of sales to 1% of sales.
8. Wagner changed from LIFO to FIFO to account for its materials and work-in-process inventories.
9. Wagner changed from FIFO to average cost to account for its equipment inventory.
10. Wagner sells extended service contracts on some of its equipment sold. Wagner performs services related to these contracts over several years, so in 2013 Wagner changed from recognizing revenue from these service contracts on a cash basis to the accrual basis.