At the Olympic level of competition, even the smallest factors can make the difference between winning and losing. For example, Pelton (1983) has shown that Olympic marksmen shoot much better if they fire between heartbeats, rather than squeezing the trigger during a heartbeat. The small vibration caused by a heartbeat seems to be sufficient to affect the marksman's aim. The following hypothetical data demonstrate this phenomenon. A sample of n = 8 Olympic marksmen fires a series of rounds while a researcher records heartbeats. For each marksman, a score is recorded for shots fired during heartbeats and for shots fired between heartbeats. Do these data indicate a significant difference? Test with a = .05.
Answer to relevant QuestionsExample 11.1 in this chapter presented a repeatedmeasures research study demonstrating that swearing can help reduce ratings of pain (Stephens, Atkins, & Kingston, 2009). In the study, each participant was asked to plunge a ...a. A repeated-measures study with a sample of n = 9 participants produces a mean difference of MD = 3 with a standard deviation of σ = 6. Use a two-tailed hypothesis test with a = .05 to determine whether it is likely that ...There is some evidence that high school students justify cheating in class on the basis of poor teacher skills or low levels of teacher caring (Murdock, Miller, & Kohlhardt, 2004). Students appear to rationalize their ...The following values summarize the results from an independent-measures study comparing two treatment conditions. a. Use an independent-measures t test with a = .05 to determine whether there is a significant mean difference ...For the preceding problem you should find that there are significant differences among the three treatments. The primary reason for the significance is that the mean for treatment III is substantially larger than the means ...
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