# Question: Chance Spring 2010 presented an article on the random mutation

Chance (Spring 2010) presented an article on the random mutation hypothesis developed by microbiologists. Under this hypothesis, when a wild-type organic cell (e.g., a bacteria cell) divides, there is a chance that at least one of the two daughter” cells is a mutant. When a mutant cell divides, both offspring will be mutant. The schematic below shows a possible pedigree from a single cell that has divided. Note that one “daughter” cell is mutant (●) and one is a normal cell (○).

a. Consider a single, normal cell that divides into two offspring. List the different possible pedigrees.

b. Assume that a “daughter” cell is equally likely to be mutant or normal. What is the probability that a single, normal cell that divides into two offspring will result in at least one mutant cell?

c. Now assume that the probability of a mutant “daughter” cell is .2. What is the probability that a single, normal cell that divides into two offspring will result in at least one mutant cell?

d. The schematic below shows a possible second-generation pedigree from a single cell that has divided. The first generation mutant cell automatically produces two mutant cells in the second generation. List the different possible second generation pedigrees.

e. Assume that a “daughter” cell is equally likely to be mutant or normal. What is the probability that a single, normal cell that divides into two offspring will result in at least one mutant cell after the second generation?

a. Consider a single, normal cell that divides into two offspring. List the different possible pedigrees.

b. Assume that a “daughter” cell is equally likely to be mutant or normal. What is the probability that a single, normal cell that divides into two offspring will result in at least one mutant cell?

c. Now assume that the probability of a mutant “daughter” cell is .2. What is the probability that a single, normal cell that divides into two offspring will result in at least one mutant cell?

d. The schematic below shows a possible second-generation pedigree from a single cell that has divided. The first generation mutant cell automatically produces two mutant cells in the second generation. List the different possible second generation pedigrees.

e. Assume that a “daughter” cell is equally likely to be mutant or normal. What is the probability that a single, normal cell that divides into two offspring will result in at least one mutant cell after the second generation?

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