Consider a system with memory mapping done on a page basis and using a single-level page table. Assume that the necessary page table is always in memory.
a. If a memory reference takes 200 ns, how long does a paged memory reference take?
b. Now we add an MMU that imposes an overhead of 20 ns on a hit or a miss. If we assume that 85% of all memory references hit in the MMU TLB, what is the Effective Memory Access Time (EMAT)?
c. Explain how the TLB hit rate affects the EMAT.