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Could it be that smoking actually increases survival rates among

Could it be that smoking actually increases survival rates among women? The following data represent the 20-year survival status and smoking status of 1314 English women who participated in a cohort study from 1972 to 1992.

(a) What proportion of the smokers was dead after 20 years? What proportion of the nonsmokers was dead after 20 years? What does this imply about the health consequences of smoking?

The data in the table above do not take into account a variable that is strongly related to survival status, age. The data shown next give the survival status of women and their age at the beginning of the study. For example, 14 women who were 35 to 44 at the beginning of the study were smokers and dead after 20 years.

(b) Determine the proportion of 18- to 24-year-old smokers who were dead after 20 years. Determine the proportion of 18- to 24-year-old nonsmokers who were dead after 20 years.

(c) Repeat part (b) for the remaining age groups to create a conditional distribution of survival status by smoking status for each age group.

(d) Draw a bar graph of the conditional distribution from part (c).

(e) Write a short report detailing your ﬁndings.

(a) What proportion of the smokers was dead after 20 years? What proportion of the nonsmokers was dead after 20 years? What does this imply about the health consequences of smoking?

The data in the table above do not take into account a variable that is strongly related to survival status, age. The data shown next give the survival status of women and their age at the beginning of the study. For example, 14 women who were 35 to 44 at the beginning of the study were smokers and dead after 20 years.

(b) Determine the proportion of 18- to 24-year-old smokers who were dead after 20 years. Determine the proportion of 18- to 24-year-old nonsmokers who were dead after 20 years.

(c) Repeat part (b) for the remaining age groups to create a conditional distribution of survival status by smoking status for each age group.

(d) Draw a bar graph of the conditional distribution from part (c).

(e) Write a short report detailing your ﬁndings.

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