A datagram subnet allows routers to drop packets whenever they need to. The probability of a router discarding a packet is p. Consider the case of a source host connected to the source router, which is connected to the destination router, and then to the destination host. If either of the routers discards a packet, the source host eventually times out and tries again. If both host-router and router-router lines are counted as hops, what is the mean number of
(a) Hops a packet makes per transmission?
(b) Transmissions a packet makes?
(c) Hops required per received packet?