Described below are six independent and unrelated situations involving accounting changes. Each change occurs during 2011 before any adjusting entries or closing entries were prepared. Assume the tax rate for each company is 40% in all years. Any tax effects should be adjusted through the deferred tax liability account.
a. Fleming Home Products introduced a new line of commercial awnings in 2010 that carry a one-year warranty against manufacturer's defects. Based on industry experience, warranty costs were expected to approximate 3% of sales. Sales of the awnings in 2010 were $3,500,000. Accordingly, warranty expense and a warranty liability of $105,000 were recorded in 2010. In late 2011, the company's claims experience was evaluated and it was determined that claims were far fewer than expected: 2% of sales rather than 3%. Sales of the awnings in 2011 were $4,000,000 and warranty expenditures in 2011 totaled $91,000.
b. On December 30, 2007, Rival Industries acquired its office building at a cost of $1,000,000. It was depreciated on a straight-line basis assuming a useful life of 40 years and no salvage value. However, plans were finalized in 2011 to relocate the company headquarters at the end of 2015. The vacated office building will have a salvage value at that time of $700,000.
c. Hobbs-Barto Merchandising, Inc., changed inventory cost methods to LIFO from FIFO at the end of 2011 for both financial statement and income tax purposes. Under FIFO, the inventory at January 1, 2012, is $690,000.
d. At the beginning of 2008, the Hoffman Group purchased office equipment at a cost of $330,000. Its useful life was estimated to be 10 years with no salvage value. The equipment was depreciated by the sum-of-the-years'-digits method. On January 1, 2011, the company changed to the straight-line method.
e. In November 2009, the State of Minnesota filed suit against Huggins Manufacturing Company, seeking penalties for violations of clean air laws. When the financial statements were issued in 2010, Huggins had not reached a settlement with state authorities, but legal counsel advised Huggins that it was probable the company would have to pay $200,000 in penalties. Accordingly, the following entry was recorded:
Loss—litigation ................................................ 200,000
Liability—litigation .......................................... 200,000
Late in 2011, a settlement was reached with state authorities to pay a total of $350,000 in penalties.
f. At the beginning of 2011, Jantzen Specialties, which uses the sum-of-the-years'-digits method, changed to the straight-line method for newly acquired buildings and equipment. The change increased current year net earnings by $445,000.
For each situation:
1. Identify the type of change.
2. Prepare any journal entry necessary as a direct result of the change as well as any adjusting entry for 2011 related to the situation described.
3. Briefly describe any other steps that should be taken to appropriately report the situation.