Determine whether the following bonds payable will be issued at par value, at a premium, or at a discount:
a. The market interest rate is 7%. Horton Corp. issues bonds payable with a stated rate of 6 1/2%.
b. Sharp, Inc., issued 6% bonds payable when the market rate was 5 3/4%.
c. Houston Corporation issued 3% bonds when the market interest rate was 3%.
d. Ontario Company issued bonds payable that pay stated interest of 8%. At issuance, the market interest rate was 8 1/4%.