Discuss the meaning and problems associated with using the end-state view criteria of merit, achievement, effort, and contribution.
Answer to relevant QuestionsWhat is the literal meaning of equal opportunity? What criterion does James Fishkin use for judging whether it exists? What is Bernard Williams’s “starting-gate theory” of equal opportunity?How do the retributivist arguments differ from the deterrence arguments?What is the difference between the mechanisms of deterrence and prevention? Given their meanings, does the death penalty prevent murders? Deter would-be killers? How?What are the differences among intrinsic, instrumental, and prima facie values? Give an example of each.List some anthropocentric reasons for preserving animal species.
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