# Question: Entropy can be calculated by a relationship proposed by Ludwig

Entropy can be calculated by a relationship proposed by Ludwig Boltzmann: S = kB ln V where kB = 1.38 × 10–23 J/K and V is the number of ways a particular state can be obtained. (This equation is engraved on Boltzmann’s tombstone.) Calculate S for the three arrangements of particles in Table.

Table

Table

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