Example 11.1 in this chapter presented a repeatedmeasures research study demonstrating that swearing can help reduce ratings of pain (Stephens, Atkins, & Kingston, 2009). In the study, each participant was asked to plunge a hand into icy water and keep it there as long as the pain would allow. In one condition, the participants repeated their favorite curse words while their hands were in the water. In the other condition, the participants repeated a neutral word. In addition to lowering the participants' perception of pain, swearing also increased the amount of time that they were able to tolerate the pain. Data similar to the results obtained in the study are shown in the following table.
a. Do these data indicate a significant difference in pain tolerance between the two conditions? Use a two-tailed test with a = .05.
b. Compute r2, the percentage of variance accounted for, to measure the size of the treatment effect.
c. Write a sentence demonstrating how the results of the hypothesis test and the measure of effect size would appear in a research report.

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