Explain the phantom phenomenon. Why may this phenomenon lead to an incorrect concurrent execution despite the use of the two-phase locking protocol?
Answer to relevant QuestionsDevise a timestamp-based protocol that avoids the phantom phenomenon.Assume that immediate modification is used in a system. Show, by an example, how an inconsistent database state could result if log records for a transaction are not output to stable storage prior to data updated by the ...Explain the reasons why recovery of interactive transactions is more difficult to deal with than is recovery of batch transactions. Is there a simple way to deal with this difficulty? In typical client–server systems the server machine is much more powerful than the clients; that is, its processor is faster, it may have multiple processors, and it has more memory and disk capacity. Consider instead a ...Explain how the following differ: fragmentation transparency, replication transparency, and location transparency.
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