Frustrated passengers congested streets time schedules and air and noise
Frustrated passengers, congested streets, time schedules, and air and noise pollution are just some of the physical and social pressures that lead many urban bus drivers to retire prematurely with disabilities such as coronary heart disease and stomach disorders. An intervention program designed by the Stockholm Transit District was implemented to improve the work conditions of the city's bus drivers. Improvements were evaluated by G. Evans et al., who collected physiological and psychological data for bus drivers who drove on the improved routes (intervention) and for drivers who were assigned the normal routes (control). Their findings were published in the article "hassles on the Job: A Study of a Job Intervention with Urban Bus Drivers" (Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 20, pp. 199-208). Following are data, based on the results of the study, for the heart rates, in beats per minute, of the intervention and control drivers.
a. At the 5% significance level, do the data provide sufficient evidence to conclude that the intervention program reduces mean heart rate of urban bus drivers in Stockholm?
b. Can you provide an explanation for the somewhat surprising results of the study?
c. Is the study a designed experiment or an observational study? Explain your answer.
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