Golddiggers has zero net income if it sells gold for a price of $380. However, by shorting a forward contract it is possible to guarantee a profit of $40/oz. suppose a manager decides not to hedge and the gold price in 1 year is $390/oz. Did the firm earn $10 in profit (relative to accounting break-even) or lose $30 in profit (relative to the profit that could be obtained by hedging)? Would your answer be different if the manager did hedge and the gold price had been $450?
•XYZ mines copper, with fixed costs of $0.50/lb and variable cost of $0.40/lb.
•Wirco produces wire. It buys copper and manufactures wire. One pound of copper can be used to produce one unit of wire, which sells for the price of copper plus $5. Fixed cost per unit is $3 and noncopper variable cost is $1.50.
•Telco installs telecommunications equipment and uses copper wire fromWirco as an input. For planning purposes, Telco assigns a fixed revenue of $6.20 for each unit of wire it uses.
The 1-year forward price of copper is $1/lb. The 1-year continuously compounded interest rate is 6%. One-year option prices for copper are shown in the table below.17
In your answers, at a minimum consider copper prices in 1 year of $0.80, $0.90, $1.00, $1.10, and $1.20.

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