Gull Corporation, a cash method, calendar year C corporation, was formed and began business on November 1, 2014. Gull incurred the following expenses during its first year of operations (November 1, 2014–December 31, 2014):
Expenses of temporary directors and organizational meetings. $21,000
Fee paid to state of incorporation.............. 3,000
Expenses for printing and sale of stock certificates..... 11,000
Legal services for drafting the corporate charter and bylaws (not
paid until January 2015)............... 19,000
a. Assuming that Gull Corporation elects under § 248 to expense and amortize organizational expenditures, what amount may be deducted in 2014?
b. Assume the same facts as above, except that the amount paid for the legal services was $28,000 (instead of $19,000). What amount may be deducted as organizational expenditures in 2014?