Hallam, Price, and Katsarou (2002) investigated the influence of background noise on classroom performance for children aged 10 to 12. In one part of the study, calming music led to better performance on an arithmetic task compared to a no-music condition.
Suppose that a researcher selects one class of n = 18 students who listen to calming music each day while working on arithmetic problems. A second class of n = 18 serves as a control group with no music.
Accuracy scores are measured for each child and the average for students in the music condition is M = 86.4 with SS = 1550 compared to an average of M = 78.8 with SS = 1204 for students in the nomusic condition.
a. Is there a significant difference between the two music conditions? Use a two-tailed test with a = .05.
b. Compute the 90% confidence interval for the population mean difference.
c. Write a sentence demonstrating how the results from the hypothesis test and the confidence interval would appear in a research report.

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