In her dissertation, the Ph.D. student from Problem 15.10 writes that the relationship between the quality of a municipal bureaucracy and the economic development of a city is causal—that is, that higher-quality bureaucracy leads to higher economic development. Evaluate her claim of causality. What conditions would have to be met in order to establish that this relationship is causal? Does the cross-tabulation between the two variables (presented in standard format) bear on the question of causality? How? Explain your answer.
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