In question 28, identify the levels of the factor and the dependent variable in experiments, and the predictor/criterion variables in correlational studies.
In question 28,
(a) Doing well in statistics should reduce students’ math phobia. We measure their math phobia after selecting groups who received either an A, B, C, or D in statistics.
(b) To determine if recall is better or worse than recognition, participants study a list of words, and then half of them recall the words and the other half performs a recognition test.
(c) We repeatedly test the aggressiveness of rats after 1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks, to see if they become more aggressive as they grow older.
(d) Using the grades of 100 students, we want to use students’ score on the first exam to predict their final exam grade.
(e) We test for gender differences in voting history by counting the number of males and females who voted in the last election.
(f) We ask if pilots are quicker than navigators, comparing the reaction time of a group of pilots to that of their navigators.

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