In soccer, serious fouls result in a penalty kick with one kicker and one defending goalkeeper. The table below summarizes results from 286 kicks during games among top teams. In the table, jump direction indicates which way the goalkeeper jumped, where the kick direction is from the perspective of the goalkeeper. Use a 0.05 significance level to test the claim that the direction of the kick is independent of the direction of the goalkeeper jump. Do the results support the theory that because the kicks are so fast, goalkeepers have no time to react, so the directions of their jumps are independent of the directions of the kicks? Test the given claim.
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