In the text the equation ΔG = ΔGo + RT ln(Q) was derived for gaseous reactions where the quantities in Q were expressed in units of pressure. We also can use units of mol/ L for the quantities in Q— specifically for aqueous reactions. With this in mind, consider the reaction HF(aq) ⇌ H+(aq) + F-(aq) for which Ka = 7.2 × 10-4 at 25oC. Calculate ΔG for the reaction under the following conditions at 25oC:
a. [HF] = [H+] = [F-] = 1.0 M
b. [HF] = 0.98 M, [H+] = [F-] = 2.7 × 10-2 M
c. [HF] = [H+] = [F-] = 1.0 × 10-5 M
d. [HF] = [F-] = 0.27 M, [H+] = 7.2 × 10-4 M
e. [HF] = 0.52 M, [F-] = 0.67 M, [H+] = 1.0 × 10-3 M
Based on the calculated ΔG values, in which direction will the reaction shift to reach equilibrium for each of the five sets of conditions?