Inverness Steel Corporation is a producer of flat rolled carbon
Inverness Steel Corporation is a producer of flat-rolled carbon, stainless and electrical steels, and tubular products. The company's income statement for the 2011 fiscal year reported the following information ($ in millions):
Sales ......... $6,255
Cost of goods sold .... 5,190

The company's balance sheets for 2011 and 2010 included the following information ($ in millions):

The statement of cash flows reported bad debt expense for 2011 of $8 million. The summary of significant accounting policies included the following notes ($ in millions):

Accounts Receivable (in part)
The allowance for uncollectible accounts was $10 and $7 at December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively. All sales are on credit.

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or market. The cost of the majority of inventories is measured using the last in, first out (LIFO) method. Other inventories are measured principally at average cost and consist mostly of foreign inventories and certain raw materials. If the entire inventory had been valued on an average cost basis, inventory would have been higher by $480 and $350 at the end of 2011 and 2010, respectively.

During 2011, 2010, and 2009, liquidation of LIFO layers generated income of $6, $7, and $25, respectively.

Using the information provided:
1. Determine the amount of accounts receivable Inverness wrote off during 2011.
2. Calculate the amount of cash collected from customers during 2011.
3. Calculate what cost of goods sold would have been for 2011 if the company had used average cost to value its entire inventory.
4. Calculate the following ratios for 2011:
a. Receivables turnover ratio
b. Inventory turnover ratio
c. Gross profit ratio
5. Explain briefly what caused the income generated by the liquidation of LIFO layers. Assuming an income tax rate of 35%, what was the effect of the liquidation of LIFO layers on cost of goods sold in2011?
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