Lazurus Steel Corporation produces iron rods that are supposed to be 36 inches long. The machine that makes these rods does not produce each rod exactly 36 inches long. The lengths of the rods are normally distributed, and they vary slightly. It is known that when the machine is working properly, the mean length of the rods is 36 inches. The standard deviation of the lengths of all rods produced on this machine is always equal to .035 inch. The quality control department at the company takes a sample of 20 such rods every week, calculates the mean length of these rods, and tests the null hypothesis µ = 36, inches, against the alternative hypothesis, µ = 36 inches. If the null hypothesis is rejected, the machine is stopped and adjusted. A recent sample of 20 rods produced a mean length of 36.015 inches.
a. Calculate the p-value for this test of hypothesis. Based on this p-value, will the quality control inspector decide to stop the machine and adjust it if he chooses the maximum probability of a Type I error to be .02? What if the maximum probability of a Type I error is .10?
b. Test the hypothesis of part a using the critical-value approach and α = .02. Does the machine need to be adjusted? What if α = .10?