Managers are frequently called on to negotiate in a variety of settings. This calls for an ability to think logically, which requires an ability to concentrate and ignore distractions. In a study of the effect of distractions, a random sample of 208 students was drawn by psychologists at McMaster University (reported in the National Post, December 11, 2003). The male students were shown pictures of women of varying attractiveness. The female students were shown pictures of men of varying attractiveness. All students were then offered a choice of an immediate reward of $15 or a wait of 8 months for a reward of $75. The choices of the male and of the female students (1 = immediate reward, 2 = larger reward 8 months later) were recorded.
The results are stored in the following way:
Column 1: Choices of males shown most attractive women Column 2: Choices of males shown less attractive women
Column 3: Choices of females shown most attractive men
Column 4: Choices of females shown less attractive men
a. Can we infer that men’s choices are affected by the attractiveness of women’s pictures?
b. Can we infer that women’s choices are affected by the attractiveness of men’s pictures?

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