Numerous epidemiological studies associate a history of smoking with the presence of lung cancer. If a study finds association (cancer rates are higher among smokers), does this mean that smoking causes cancer?
Answer to relevant QuestionsIncidences of flu are much more prevalent in the winter months than in the summer. Does this association between respiratory illness and outside temperature imply that cold weather causes the flu? The contingency table in Exercise 39 shows counts of the types of gasoline bought during the week and during weekends. (a) Find the value of chi-squared and Cramer’s V for this table. (b) Interpret these values. What do ...The best-known credit rating for consumers in the United States is the FICO score (named for the company Fair Isaac). The score ranges from 300 to 850, with higher scores indicating that the consumer is a better credit risk. ...One effort to improve the efficiency of the health care system provides patients and doctors with more information about the quality of care delivered by hospitals. The idea is to help consumers find the best hospital to ...Management of a sales force has noticed that there is a positive linear association (r = 0.6) between sales produced by company representatives in adjacent months. If a sales representative does really well this month (say, ...
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