Of all sports, football accounts for the highest incidence of concussion in the United States due to the large number of athletes participating and the nature of the sport. While there is general agreement that concussion incidence can be reduced by making rule changes and teaching proper tackling technique, there remains debate as to whether helmet design may also reduce the incidence of concussion. Rowson et al. (2014) report on a retrospective analysis of head impact data collected between 2005 and 2010 from eight collegiate football teams. Concussion rates for players wearing two types of helmets, Riddell VSR4 and Riddell Revolution, were compared. A total of 1,281,444 head impacts were recorded, from which 64 concussions were diagnosed. The relative risk of sustaining a concussion in a Revolution helmet compared with a VSR4 helmet was 46.1%. This study illustrates that differences in the ability to reduce concussion risk exist between helmet models in football. Although helmet design may never prevent all concussions from occurring in football, evidence illustrates that it can reduce the incidence of this injury.
a. Identify the population that is of interest to the researchers.
b. Describe the sample.
c. What characteristics of the population are of interest to the researchers?
d. If the sample measurements are used to make inferences about the population characteristics, why is a measure of reliability of the inferences important?

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