P Company holds an 80% interest in S Company. Determine the effect (that is, increase, decrease, no change, not determinable) on both the total book value of the noncontrolling interest and the noncontrolling interest's percentage of ownership in the net assets of S Company for each of the following situations:
a. P Company acquires additional shares di rectly from S Company at a price equal to the book value per share of the S Company stock immediately prior to the issuance.
b. S Company acquires its own shares on the open market. The cost of these shares is less than their book value.
c. Assume the same situation as in (b) except that the cost of the shares is greater than their book value.
d. P Company and a noncontrolling stockholder each acquire 100 shares directly from S Company at a price below the book value per share.