Political theorist Karl Marx is known for his theory that the working class, to put an end to capitalism and establish a communist society, would eventually rise up and overthrow the upper-class members of society who exploit them. One reason for the capitalist workers’ discontent, according to Marx’s theory, is that these workers take no pride in their work because both the work they do and the products that result belong not to them but to the capitalists they work for. To test this insight, a researcher went to a large factory and interviewed people from three groups – the workers, the managers, and the owners – to see if there is a difference among them in terms of how much pride they take in their work. Given the following scores, with higher scores representing more pride in work, test the null hypothesis that pride in work does not differ by class.
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