advanced tax theory/research

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1- are punitive damages income? how can you tell?

in my limited research and understanding they are due to publication 4345 and 525 with the later having it under other income - court awards.

2- where in the law do we find that answer?
hmm how about 26 u.s. code section 104? compensation for injuries or sickness.

3- section 104 removes certain items from gross income which is defined in section 61. 61 says gross income is income...what is income? can you think of a situation where that might be important? why is borrowing money not a taxable event?

4- when you ask what is income, you stated it is neither gross or earned income. what about taxable income? is this the definition you are looking for?

5- i am looking for the definition of "income". how do we know it includes punitive damages but does not include borrowed money. if the irs decided you should pay tax on the money you borrow to attend university ( any schools) how would you argue against it .

please, answer all questions. thank you,
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