critical thinking essay 2

Project Description:

"critical thinking paper — draft and self-evaluation 1"

background and preparation:
in week 4 (below), discussion 2, i picked a topic, did some brainstorming and “starbursting” on the topic, and used the cap process to organize the generated material into a rough outline.
in the week 7 “explore it” activity, you created and conducted a survey on the topic you selected.
this week, in discussion 3, you shared the results of your survey with your classmates.
now it is time to write a first draft of your position paper and to self-evaluate the draft.
please note: for this task you will write both a draft and your self-evaluation of the draft. however, you will submit only the self-evaluation of your draft. even though you are not submitting the draft itself, it is important to follow the guidelines below, because these are the identical guidelines for the final paper that is due in week 10.
write a four to six (4–6) page (1000–1200 word) paper that presents a reasoned, convincing argument for a position on a selected topic. your paper should cover the following:
follow the five steps of persuasion: establishing credibility, acknowledging the audience’s position, constructing a rationale, transplanting root elements, and asking for a response.
clearly define your position and supporting evidence, including the results of your survey.
include all the necessary “evidence” for the reader to reach the expected conclusion in each argument in the paper (whether the over-riding argument or one contained in an individual paragraph)
ensure that each argument in the paper (whether the overriding argument or one contained in an individual paragraph) is valid and free from both formal and informal fallacies.
include at least four (4) references (sources). at least one (1) of your sources must be obtained from the collection of databases accessible from the learning resources center web page.
the paper should follow guidelines for clear and effectively organized writing:
the paper is well-organized, and every explanation is both complete and easy to understand.
include an introductory paragraph and concluding paragraph for the paper.
main ideas should be addressed in body paragraphs with a topic sentence and supporting sentences.
adhere to standard rules of english grammar, punctuation, and mechanics.
the paper should be checked for spelling and grammatical errors.
the format of the paper is to be as follows:
typed, double-spaced, times new roman font (size 12), one-inch margins on all sides, apa format.
in addition to the four to six (4–6) pages assigned, a title page with the title of the task, your name, the instructor’s name, the course title, and the date is to be included, as well as a reference page.
sources documented using apa style for in-text citations and listed on the references page using apa style format.
note: this is the part you will submit for this task. after you have written the draft of your position paper, review it to identify the strengths and weaknesses of your argument. respond to the following questions, as specifically as you can:
what is your topic?
what are the possibly different main claims/positions related to this topic? (there will be at least two (2) possibly different claims/positions, but there could be more; however, one of them will be your claim/position.)
what is your position regarding the topic?
what “evidence” have you offered to support your claim/position? have you included your survey results?
put your claim/position and “evidence” through the “scientific method” and “proving a theory” steps. are there any steps on which your claim/position and evidence do not measure up to the examination? if so, what can you do to make them more acceptable?
who is your intended audience? (this does not have to be specifically your instructor.)
what is your purpose? what do you want the audience to do, to feel, or to think? remember that a persuasive paper is always asking for some sort of response from the audience.
what words or phrases have you included to cause your audience to do, feel, or think the way that you want them to do, feel, or think? include all of your motivational or empathetic “cues” for your audience.
how can your position actually better meet the needs of your audience than other possible positions?
what more might your audience need to know before they believe that they need to do, to feel, or to think that what you are suggesting should in fact cause them to be doing, feeling, or thinking something?
what position that is different from yours might cause your audience not to accept your position? (note: there may be more than one.) now that you have identified it, what do you need to add to your own argument to convince your audience that this alternate position should be rejected in favor of your own position?
can you think of anything else that your audience might need in order to be persuaded by your argument?
once you have completed these tasks, start editing and revising your paper.
the self-evaluation should be at least one (1) page, 250 words minimum. the evaluation should be typed. apa format is not required for the task. include your name and date.

week 7:
identify a variable for scientific study that can be operationally defined.
the variable which will be in consideration for this study is the life expectancy of the people who drink alcohol heavily.
create an operational definition for the variable.
it is observed that the people who drink alcohol a lot have shorter life expectancy and are likely to die at a younger age compared to moderate or non-drinkers. statistically putting, a person is characterized as a heavy drinker if he consumes five or more drinks per occasion on at least one per month in a year. alcohol consumption of this level can have lot a bad health and social consequences. the effect worsens while doing activities like driving. as per the report of century council in 2012, 10839 people in the united states are estimated to have died in drunken driving crashes last year. this accounts for 32% of the total traffic deaths. moreover worldwide 4 percent of all deaths are related to alcohol. in us, 75000 early deaths are per year because of excessive consumption of alcohol.
identify what aspects of the variable would be observable and measurable.
the deaths, ill effects and the statistics around the variable life expectancy of the people who drink alcohol heavily are measurable. however the social implications causing it and produced by it is observable. again some of the social implications like divorces are also measurable but behavior changes and psychological damages caused by the alcohol cannot be quantifiably measured but can be only observed.

week 4:
many deliberations require proper format to conduct the qualitative structure in a competitive environment to discuss on particular topic. it is just like a clutter that is more like a mess and it has to be controlled and summarized in a group if a group discussion is required. supposedly, if a group discussion is conducted to brainstorm about the student union in the university, the students and teachers of interest would like to conduct the brainstorming session in order to acquire the opinions and after that, a proper evaluation would be applied likely.
in a group discussion, first of all wealth of ideas would be required by each student that priory refers to clustering process and in this first step, the students would present the ideas they think are the best for example many students would favor the student union running in the university but many students would say against the related topic. the prior method to encourage the group discussion is aimed not to say against the opinion of the student as it would be supposed to create the sense of rejection among the students or it would likely to create the inferiority complex in the students. most importantly, to avoid the conflicts, teachers would prefer the students to write up what they think is the best solution of promoting the existence of student unions as for example. the second process in the brainstorming session would be analyzing the ideas taken up from the students and it would provide a platform for the teacher to select the best one in order to apply it on constructed level. for example, any idea that supports student union and the way to enhance positive aspects of the union would be placed as excellent by the teacher keeping the consideration intact that this idea will be implemented immediately. the second process thus is analyzing in which the best possible idea would be encouraged and every idea would be placed under three categories of “excellent”, “interesting” and “useless”. after that prioritization is the third and final step in the brainstorming group session which would be applied to any of the best idea and would be given the priority to the particular idea for its implementation. for example, if a student gave the idea that student union should work in the limits and will not intrude in the teacher’s own matters about the university, would be the most liked idea and it would be readily implemented after giving it “first priority” and making the best possible way to put up on the table. brainstorming in groups is the most sufficient way to take up the ideas by the people of interest in order to create an environment which is selfless and innovative in its own sense.
the purpose of the brainstorming in the form of focus group discussions is aimed to encourage the skeptical thinking and highlights the issues that are disguised. by the formation of clustering, the identification of problems would lik
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