deciphering financial statements (lockheed martin corporation)

Project Description:

case 8-61 deciphering financial statements (lockheed martin corporation)
lockheed martin corporation "principally researches, designs, develops, manufactures, integrates, operates and sustains advanced technology systems and products, and provides a broad range of management, engineering, technical, scientific, logistic and information services" within its four business segments: aeronautics, electronic systems, information systems & global services, and space systems. as a result, lockheed has many long-term contracts. the following note is taken from lockheed's 2009 annual report and provides a good summary of the concepts associated with revenue recognition and long-term contracts.
sales and earnings—we record sales and anticipated profits under long-term fixed-price design, development, and production (dd&p) contracts on a percentage of completion basis, generally using units-of-delivery as the basis to measure progress toward completing the contract and recognizing revenue. we include estimated contract profits in earnings in proportion to recorded sales. we record sales under certain long-term fixed-price dd&p contracts that, among other factors, provide for the delivery of minimal quantities or require a substantial level of development effort in relation to total contract value, upon achievement of performance milestones or using the cost-to-cost method of accounting where sales and profits are recorded based on the ratio of costs we incur to our estimate of total costs at completion. we record sales and an estimated profit under dd&p cost-reimbursement-type contracts as costs are incurred in the proportion that the incurred costs bear to total estimated costs. when adjustments in estimated contract revenues or estimated costs at completion are required, any changes from prior estimates are recognized by recording adjustments in the current period for the inception-to-date effect of the changes on current and prior periods. when estimates of total costs to be incurred on a contract exceed total estimates of revenue to be earned, a provision for the entire loss on the contract is recorded in the period the loss is determined. we record sales of products and services provided under essentially commercial terms and conditions upon delivery and passage of title.
we consider incentives or penalties related to performance on dd&p contracts in estimating sales and profit rates, and record them when there is sufficient information to assess anticipated contract performance. we also consider estimates of award fees in estimating sales and profit rates based on actual awards and anticipated performance. we do not recognize incentive provisions that increase or decrease earnings based solely on a single significant event until the event occurs. we only include amounts representing contract change orders, claims, or other items in sales when they can be reliably estimated and realization is probable.
we record revenue under contracts for services other than those associated with dd&p activities either as services are performed or when a contractually
required event has occurred, depending on the contract. the majority of our service contracts is in our information systems & global services segment. we record revenue under such services contracts on a straight-line basis over the period of contract performance, unless evidence suggests that the revenue is earned or the obligations are fulfilled in a different pattern. costs we incur under these services contracts are expensed as incurred, except that we capitalize and recognize initial "set-up" costs over the life of the agreement. award and incentive fees related to our performance on services contracts are recognized when they are fixed or determinable, which is typically on the date the amount is communicated to us by the customer.
how does lockheed measure its percentage of completion on most of its long-term contracts?for the remaining long-term contracts, how does lockheed recognize revenue and profits?if a change in the contract is made, when is that change reflected in revenues?how does lockheed normally account for revenue under its service contracts not associated with design, development, or production activities?is lockheed's method of accounting for costs incurred under these service contracts the same as its method for recording revenue? explain.
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