history questions( short answers required)

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1.the origins of the cold war - a simmering conflict that set the terms of international relations from the end of world war ii to the 1990s. for many, the rise of this conflict was a shocking disappointment given the high degree of co-operation between the soviets and the us during world war ii. for historians, the question becomes, "was the cold war an inevitable conflict?" which is to ask, was it the result of a deep and irreconcilable conflict of interests between the us and the ussr (and if so what were these interests) or was it a conflict that depended on very specific circumstances from 1945 to 1948 and one that may have turned out differently had the context of these years been only slightly different (different political leaders, for example). briefly discuss.

2.earlier the question as to who bore more responsibility for the outbreak of the cold war, the us or the ussr. by the 1950s and 1960s the question changes somewhat. by then we might ask, "who bears the greater responsibility for why the cold war persisted and extended itself across the globe?" this question is especially pertinent since, the cold war threatened global nuclear annihilation, diverted money away from needed social expenditures, and caused domestic political unrest for the superpowers. so in this light what is your answer to this question and what do you base your response upon?

3.in the readings by keynes and marshall, the aim of global economic reform in the aftermath of world war ii was to use prosperity as a way of undermining support for communist radicalism. consider the extent to which this goal was achieved and if not completely, why not?

4.discuss the role of the experience of imperialism in thrid world communism. what factors other than imperialism were a cause for revolutionary activity?

5.assess the extent to which so-called "conservative" or "reformist" experiments in national independence where important or successful.

6.why did colonialism have a much more powerful, debilitating and enduring effect in sub-saharan africa than it did elsewhere? why couldn't africa overcome this legacy in a way that india or china did?

7.in demonizing the soviet union as the "evil empire" us president ronald reagan marked a departure from the foreign policy of his republican predecessor richard nixon. he also set the stage for a massive build up of us weaponry and us involvement in the "proxy" conflicts of the cold war around the world - actions that later us conservatives would later say helped the us "win" the cold war.we need to get to the bottom of a few issues: first, did the us in fact "win" the cold war and if so in what way?; second, to what extent did the people of eastern europe hope for the demise of communism - or for something short of that?

8.compare and contrast the revolution in iran and the palestinian national movement as forms of resistance against euro-american domination of the global system.

9.identify what the central challenges of global society have become in the last 20 years and how the system of globalization has either caused, improved or made worse these challenges.

10.from the perspective of many american policy makers in the early cold war, national independence movements in the third world were no more than fronts for soviet communist expansion - an expansion that had been foretold in the writings of george kennan. the question that has dogged many since this time is whether or not this vision was true. were third world liberation movements in the immediate aftermath of world war ii essentially nationalist or communist - or were they a unique blend of both? if they were really harmless nationalist movements then why did the us (which had long supported the idea of national self-determination) get it wrong about them (which is also to ask what other interests the us had that encouraged them to get this wrong)? if these movements were part and parcel of a worldwide communist conspiracy, why did the soviet union (which had proclaimed its intent to support anti-imperialist struggles) do so little to help them?
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