# portland company's ironton plant produces precast ingots for industrial use. carlos santiago, who was recently appointed general manager of the ironton plant, has just been handed the plant’s contribu

## Project Description:

problem 10-9 comprehensive variance analysis [lo1, lo2, lo3]

portland company's ironton plant produces precast ingots for industrial use. carlos santiago, who was recently appointed general manager of the ironton plant, has just been handed the plant’s contribution format income statement for october. the statement is shown below:

budgeted actual
sales (5,000 ingots) \$ 250,000 \$ 250,000

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variable expenses:
variable cost of goods sold* 80,000 96,390
variable selling expenses 20,000 20,000

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total variable expenses 100,000 116,390

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contribution margin 150,000 133,610

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fixed expenses:

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total fixed expenses 135,000 135,000

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net operating income (loss) \$ 15,000 \$ (1,390)

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*contains direct materials, direct labor, and variable manufacturing overhead.

mr. santiago was shocked to see the loss for the month, particularly because sales were exactly as budgeted. he stated, "i sure hope the plant has a standard cost system in operation. if it doesn't, i won't have the slightest idea of where to start looking for the problem."

the plant does use a standard cost system, with the following standard variable cost per ingot:

standard quantity or hours standard price
or rate standard cost
direct materials 4.0 pounds \$ 2.50 per pound \$ 10.00
direct labor 0.6 hours \$ 9.00 per hour 5.40
variable manufacturing overhead 0.3 hours* \$ 2.00 per hour 0.60

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total standard variable cost \$ 16.00

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*based on machine-hours.

during october the plant produced 5,000 ingots and incurred the following costs:
a. purchased 25,000 pounds of materials at a cost of \$2.95 per pound. there were no raw materials in inventory at the beginning of the month.

b. used 19,800 pounds of materials in production. (finished goods and work in process inventories are insignificant and can be ignored.)

c. worked 3,600 direct labor-hours at a cost of \$8.70 per hour.
d. incurred a total variable manufacturing overhead cost of \$4,320 for the month. a total of 1,800 machine-hours was recorded.

it is the company’s policy to close all variances to cost of goods sold on a monthly basis.

required:
1. compute the following variances for october:

a. direct materials price and quantity variances. (input all amounts as positive values. leave no cells blank - be certain to enter "0" wherever required. indicate the effect of each variance by selecting "f" for favorable, "u" for unfavorable, and "none" for no effect (i.e., zero variance). omit the "\$" sign in your response.)

materials price variance \$ (click to select)unonef
materials quantity variance \$ (click to select)fnoneu

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b. direct labor rate and efficiency variances. (input all amounts as positive values. leave no cells blank - be certain to enter "0" wherever required. indicate the effect of each variance by selecting "f" for favorable, "u" for unfavorable, and "none" for no effect (i.e., zero variance). omit the "\$" sign in your response.)

labor rate variance \$ (click to select)fnoneu
labor efficiency variance \$ (click to select)ufnone

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c. variable overhead rate and efficiency variances. (input all amounts as positive values. leave no cells blank - be certain to enter "0" wherever required. indicate the effect of each variance by selecting "f" for favorable, "u" for unfavorable, and "none" for no effect (i.e., zero variance). omit the "\$" sign in your response.)

variable overhead rate variance \$ (click to select)ufnone
variable overhead efficiency variance \$ (click to select)noneuf

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2a. summarize the variances that you computed in (1) above by showing the net overall favorable or unfavorable variance for october. (input the amount as a positive value. leave no cells blank - be certain to enter "0" wherever required. indicate the effect of each variance by selecting "f" for favorable, "u" for unfavorable, and "none" for no effect (i.e., zero variance). omit the "\$" sign in your response.)

net variance \$ (click to select)fnoneu

3. pick out the two most significant variances that you computed in (1) above. (you may select more than one answer. single click the box with the question mark to produce a check mark for a correct answer and double click the box with the question mark to empty the box for a wrong answer.)

materials price variance
materials quantity variance
labor rate variance
labor efficiency variance

worksheet difficulty: easy learning objective: 10-02 compute the direct labor efficiency and rate variances and explain their significance.
problem 10-9 comprehensive variance analysis [lo1, lo2, lo3] learning objective: 10-01 compute the direct materials quantity and price variances and explain their significance. learning objective: 10-03 compute the variable manufacturing overhead efficiency and rate variances and explain their significance.

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