Regarding the apportionment formula used to compute state taxable income, does each of the following independent characterizations describe a taxpayer that is based in-state or out-of-state? Explain.
a. The sales factor is positively correlated with the payroll, but not the property, factor.
b. The sales factor is much higher than the property and payroll factors.
c. The property and payroll factors are much higher than those for other nexus states.
d. The sales and payroll factors are low, but the property factor is very high.
e. The sales factor is remaining constant, but the payroll factor is decreasing.