Relating market value to book value of shareholders’ equity Firms prepare their balance sheets using authoritative guidance for the recognition and measurement of assets and liabilities. Accountants refer to the total common shareholders’ equity appearing on the balance sheet as the book value of shareholders’ equity. The market value of shareholders equity equals the number of shares of common stock outstanding times the market price per share. Financial analysts frequently examine the ratio of the market value of shareholders’ equity to the book value of shareholders’ equity, referred to as the market-to-book- value ratio, in assessing current market prices. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that the size of the market-to-book-value ratio is related to (1) a firm’s ability to generate higher rates of profitability than its competitors, (2) its rate of growth, and (3) its use of authoritative guidance in measuring assets and liabilities, which net to the book value of shareholders’ equity. Exhibit 3.9 presents common-size balance sheet information for six firms at the end of a recent year. Some of the six firms apply IFRS and others apply U.S GAAP Exhibit 3.9 also shows market-to-book-value ratios for the six firms. Additional information regarding the six companies follows:
(1) Pfizer is a pharmaceutical company headquartered in the United States.
(2) Nestle is a consumer products company headquartered in Switzerland. In addition to its chocolate products, it manufactures and distributes beverages (Nestea, Poulin Springs mineral water), frozen foods (Stouffer’s), milk products (infant formulas), and pet foods (Alpo).
(3) Promodes is a French company that operates supermarket chains (Champion), hypermarkets (Continent, Continente), convenience stores (Promocash, Punt&Cash), and restaurant supply stores (Prodirest).
(4) Deutsche Bank is a German bank that provides both traditional commercial banking services (deposit taking, loan making) and investment banking services (investment management, financial consulting).
(5) British Airways is domiciled in the United Kingdom and provides air transportation services.
(6) New Oji Paper Co. is a Japanese forest-products company. It purchases wood pulp from Canada and the United States and processes it into various papers for sale in Japan.
a. The market-to-book-value ratios differ from 1.0 in part because the rates of profitability and growth of these six firms differ from those of their competitors. This problem does not provide you with sufficient information to assess the impact of these two factors on the market-to-book-’value ratio. The ratios also differ from 1.0 because of the use of authoritative guidance for assets and liabilities, which this chapter discussed. Identify the authoritative guidance that most likely explains the market-to-book-value ratio for each of the six firms (that is, identify which accounting principles cause the book values of assets and Liabilities to differ from the market value of shareholders’ equity.
b. Discuss the likely rationale for the nature and mix of assets and the nature and mix of financing for each of the sixfirms.

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