Since the 1960s, Québécois have been debating whether to separate from Canada and form an independent nation. A referendum was held on October 30, 1995, in which the people of Quebec voted not to separate. The vote was extremely close, with the “no” side winning by only 52,448 votes. A large number of “No” votes was cast by the non-Francophone (non-French-speaking) people of Quebec, who make up about 20% of the population and who very much want to remain Canadians. The remaining 80% are Francophones, a majority of whom voted “yes.” After the votes were counted, it became clear that the tallied vote was much closer than it should have been. Supporters of the “no” side charged that poll Scrutineers, all of whom were appointed by the pro-separatist provincial government, rejected a disproportionate number of ballots in ridings where the percentage of “yes” votes was low and where there are large numbers of Allophone (people whose first language is neither English nor French) and Anglophone (English-speaking) residents. (Electoral laws require the rejection of ballots that do not appear to be properly marked.) They were outraged that in a strong democracy such as Canada, votes would be rigged much as they are in many nondemocratic countries around the world.
Conduct a statistical analysis of these data to determine whether there are indications that electoral fraud took place.