Some companies have switched from a “management by exception” philosophy to a “continuous improvement” viewpoint. The change is subtle, but significant. Continuous improvement focuses on comparing actual performance to the ideal (i.e., perfection). Consequently, all variances are negative (how can you do better than perfect?). The largest variances indicate the areas with the greatest amount of “waste,” and, correspondingly, the greatest opportunity for improving the bottom line. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this practice?