# Question: The headrests on a car s front seats are designed to

The headrests on a car’s front seats are designed to protect the driver and front-seat passenger from whiplash when the car is hit from behind. The frame of the headrest is made from metal rods. A machine is used to bend the rod into a U-shape exactly 440 millimeters wide. The width is critical; too wide or too narrow and it won’t fit into the holes drilled into the car seat frame. The company has experimented with several different metal alloys in the hope of finding a material that will result in more headrest frames that fit. Another possible source of variation is the machines used.
To learn more about the process the operations manager conducts an experiment. Both of the machines are used to produce 10 headrests from each of the five metal alloys now being used. Each frame is measured and the data (in millimeters) are recorded using the format shown here. Analyze the data to determine whether the alloys, machines, or both are sources of variation.
Column 1: Machine 1, rows 1 to 10 alloy A, rows 11 to 20, alloy B
Column 2: Machine 2, rows 1 to 10 alloy A, rows 11 to 20, alloy B

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