The Journal of Education and Human Development (Vol. 3, 2009) investigated the causes of plagiarism among six English-as-a-second language (ESL) students taking a master's course in linguistics. All students in the class wrote two essays, one in the middle and one at the end of the semester. After the first essay, the students were instructed on how to avoid plagiarism in the second essay. Of the six ESL students, three admitted to plagiarizing on the first essay. Only one ESL student admitted to plagiarizing on the second essay. (This student, who also plagiarized on the first essay, claimed she misplaced her notes on plagiarism.)
a. If one of the six ESL students is randomly selected, what is the probability that he or she plagiarized on the first essay?
b. Consider the results (plagiarism or not) for the six ESL students on the second essay. List the possible outcomes (e.g., Students 1 and 3 plagiarize, the others do not).
c. Refer to part b. Assume that, despite the instruction on plagiarism, the ESL students are just as likely as not to plagiarize on the second essay. What is the probability that no more than one of the ESL students plagiarizes on the second essay?

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