The police of the city of Indianapolis, Indiana, began to operate vehicle roadblock checkpoints on Indianapolis roads in an effort to interdict unlawful drugs. Once a car had been stopped, police questioned the driver and passengers and conducted an open view examination of the vehicle from the outside. A narcotics detection dog walked around outside each vehicle. The police conducted a search and seizure of the occupants and vehicle only if particular suspicion developed from the initial investigation. The overall “hit rate” of the program was approximately 9 percent. James Edmond and Joel Palmer, both of whom were attorneys who had been stopped at one of the Indianapolis checkpoints, filed a lawsuit on behalf of themselves and the class of all motorists who had been stopped or were subject to being stopped at such checkpoints. They claimed that the roadblocks violated the Fourth Amendment’s prohibition against unreasonable search and seizure. Does the Indianapolis highway checkpoint program violate the Fourth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution? City of Indianapolis v. Edmond, 531 U. S. 32, 121 S. Ct. 447, 2000 U. S. Lexis 8084 (Supreme Court of the United States, 2000)
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