The Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), which is organized by the Educational Testing Service (ETS), is important to high school students seeking admission to colleges and universities throughout the United States. A number of companies offer courses to prepare students for the SAT. The Stanley H. Kaplan Educational Center claims that its students gain, on average, more than 110 points by taking its course. ETS, however, insists that preparatory courses can improve a score by no more than 40 points. (The minimum and maximum scores of the SAT are 400 and 1,600, respectively.) Suppose a random sample of 40 students wrote the exam, then took the Kaplan preparatory course, and then took the exam again.
a. Do these data provide sufficient evidence to refute the ETS claim?
b. Do these data provide sufficient evidence to refute Kaplan’s claim?