The screening process for detecting a rare disease is not perfect. Researchers have developed a blood test that is considered fairly reliable. It gives a positive reaction in 98% of the people who have that disease. However, it erroneously gives a positive reaction in 3% of the people who do not have the disease. Answer the following questions using the null hypothesis as “the individual does not have the disease.”
a. What is the probability of Type I error?
b. What is the probability of Type II error?
c. Discuss the consequences of Type I and Type II errors.
d. What is wrong with the nurse’s analysis, “The blood test result has proved that the individual is free of disease.”