Use the data in Table 12.11 to test the null hypothesis that gender is independent of department. Show that this hypothesis is rejected at the. = 0.01 level. We conclude that department is associated with both gender and admissions. Therefore, department is a confounder for the relationship between gender and admissions. This means that it is possible that the differences in admissions rates between men and women may be due to differences in the departments they apply to, rather than to gender. To determine whether this is the case, we must look at the admissions rates for men and women in each department separately. The following six tables present these data.
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