Virginia owns 100% of Goshawk Company. In the current year, Goshawk Company sells a capital asset (held for three years) at a loss of $40,000. In addition, Goshawk has a short-term capital gain of $18,000 and net operating income of $90,000 during the year. Virginia has no recognized capital gain (or loss) before considering her ownership in Goshawk. How much of the capital loss may be deducted for the year and how much is carried back or forward if Goshawk is:
a. A proprietorship?
b. A C corporation?